The final decade of the USSR has been engraved within the reminiscences by the liberty marches within the republics. At the tip of the Eighties, when many international locations started to depart the USSR and set up their independence, the Armenia SSR authorities raised the problem of the annexation of Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan SSR to Armenia SSR in 1988.
Background of the battle
At the February 20, 1988 session of the NKAO (Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast) Soviet of People’s Deputies, members of the area’s Armenian group adopted a decision to attraction to the Supreme Soviets of Azerbaijan SSR and Armenian SSR to annex NKAO to Armenian SSR. Followingly, on February 22, 1988, the Armenians opened fireplace on a peaceable demonstration staged by the Azerbaijanisnear the city of Asgaran,who protested in opposition to the choice of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of NKAO. This incident was the start of the battle both in navy stage. On December 1, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of Armenian SSR adopted an unprecedented decision “On the unification of Armenian SSR and Nagorno-Karabakh”.On January 10, 1990, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet adopted a decision “On the nonconformity with the USSR Constitution of the acts on Nagorno-Karabakh adopted by Armenian SSR Supreme Soviet on December 1, 1989, and January 9, 1990”. The decision described as unlawful Armenian SSR’s act on the unification of Armenian SSR and Nagorno-Karabakh with out Azerbaijan SSR’s consent.
On August 30, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan declared the restoration of state independence. After announcingthe Constitutional Act “On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted the Law ‘On the abolition of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Republic of Azerbaijan”. As a end result, Armenians started massacres and terrorist actions in opposition to Azerbaijanis.In the late 1991-early 1992, the battle entered its navy stage. Having exploited the collapse of the Soviet Union and political instability in Azerbaijan attributable to the inner standoff, Armenia started navy operations in Nagorno-Karabakh with exterior navy assist.
On September 24, 1991, the Armenian navy, with the assist of the 366th Regiment, attacked the villages of Imarat and Garvand within the Aghdara area, killing Azerbaijanis with particular cruelty and expelling the individuals from their houses. The most appreciable armed violence and genocide by Armenians in opposition to Azerbaijanis occurred with the Khojaly occasions. In late 1991, Khojaly was blocked by Armenians. Armenians closed all roads, destroyed communication traces and minimize off the ability provide—the individuals residing right here communicated with different cities by helicopter telephones. However, in the identical yr, after the taking pictures down of the Mi-8 helicopter, the variety of helicopters arriving right here additionally decreased. All weapons had been confiscated from the individuals, and the gendarmerie forces working in Khojaly had been disbanded. Just a few individuals had solely a complete of 50-60 weapons left. On the evening of February 25-26, 1992, Armenian forces attacked Khojaly and, with the assist of the 366th Russian Regiment, destroyed town of Khojaly.
After that, the Azerbaijani-Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh battle escalated, and Armenian forces occupied Nagorno-Karabakh and 7 surrounding areas till 1994, killing Azerbaijanis and expelling them from their houses. At that point, Iran, which was attempting to meditate, didn’t react severely to the occupation of Azerbaijani lands by Armenia. As a end result, a ceasefire was reached solely after Armenia occupied 20% of Azerbaijani territories.
International response to the battle
The UN has adopted 4 resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) on the Nagorno-Karabakh battle, and its phrases haven’t but been fulfilled. In the current debates, Nicol Pashinyan acknowledged that the battle is going on between the so-called Nagorno Karabakh Republic and the Republic of Azerbaijan. However, these 4 resolutions clarify the actual scenario and declare that the dispute just isn’t taking place in Nagorno Karabakh; that is the worldwide battle attributable to Armenia. Firstly, in all resolutions, Nagorno Karabakh is taken into account the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic. Secondly, all 4 resolutions begin with the deterioration of relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan, after which the escalation of armed battle. The Security Council supplies an excellent understanding of who’s concerned within the battle by stressing the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of worldwide borders of all states within the area. Such texts usually are not written within the context of inside conflicts. Moreover, the Security Council emphasised that there’s a menace to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and worldwide borders of Azerbaijan.
The UNSC adopted decision 822 on April 30, 1993, after the occupation of Kelbadjar district of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Firstly, the doc states the next phrase:
“Noting with alarm the escalation in armed hostilities and particularly, the most recent invasion of the Kelbadjar district of the Republic of Azerbaijan by native Armenian forces”.
“Local Armenians” phrase is indicated solely within the decision 822, other than it, neither decision states the time period as an concerned social gathering of the battle. However, this time period doesn’t clearly state the events of the battle. It is unknown which native Armenians invaded Kelbadjar district because of uncertainty. In this decision, the UN clearly says that battle just isn’t taking place solely between native Armenians residing in Nagorno Karabakh and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Secondly, the decision emphasizes the time period “particularly, the most recent invasion of the Kelbadjar district”, which signifies that there are lots of different districts occupied by the invasion forces and UN is anxious in regards to the battle by seeing it as a extreme menace to safety within the area, which was happening for a very long time. The second phrase in the end reveals that different forces joined to the battle:
“Demands the fast cessation of all hostilities and hostile acts with a view to establishing a sturdy ceasefire, in addition to fast withdrawal of all occupying forces from the Kelbadjar district and different not too long ago occupied areas of Azerbaijan”.
The phrase “invasion” used within the first line is changed by “occupation” and “occupying forces” within the second line. The that means of the wording “occupation” in worldwide regulation is apparent – occupation can solely be the results of interstate battle. With this phrase, the UN not directly conveys the presence of Armenian forces in Kelbadjar and different occupied areas.
These phrases had been mirrored in subsequent resolutions as nicely. Thus, the Security Council has tried to indicate that the battle in Nagorno-Karabakh just isn’t a results of, in actual fact, an inside battle. Indirectly, the Security Council tried to ship that the lands belonging to Azerbaijan are occupied by Armenia. These phrases could be clearly seen within the following resolutions:
“Noting with alarm the escalation in armed hostilities, particularly, the seizure or the district of Aghdam within the Azerbaijani Republic,
- Condemns the seizure of the district of Aghdam and of all different not too long ago occupied areas of the Azerbaijani Republic;
“Calls for the fast implementation of the reciprocal and pressing steps supplied for within the CSCE Minsk Group’s “adjusted timetable”, together with the withdrawal of forces from not too long ago occupied territories and the removing of all obstacles to communications and transportation.”
“Noting with alarm the escalation in armed hostilities as a consequence of the violations of the ceasefire and excesses in using power in response to these violations, particularly, the occupation of the Zangelan district and thecity of Goradiz within the Azerbaijani Republic and the withdrawal of occupying forces from different not too long ago occupied areas of the Azerbaijani Republic…”
It could be questioned that why the Security Council didn’t point out that the battle occurred between Armenia and Azerbaijan? What is the rationale for not calling Armenia as an occupier? If the Security Council would acknowledge Armenia as an occupier, then new obligations would come up for the Security Council. In the meantime, Armenia needed to be referred to as as an aggressor and the resolutions adopted ought to have been demanded unconditionally. Due to a number of causes, the Security Council didn’t do that however as a substitute confused who’s accountable on this battle.
For occasion, in 1991, throughout the Yugoslavian War, the Security Council adopted a decision by stating “Wars in Yugoslavia” and “events in Yugoslavia” to ship this matter to the group as an inside battle. However, all 4 resolutions about Nagorno-Karabakh battle don’t embody any wording talked about above. Besides, battle was emphasised as a menace to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and worldwide borders of Azerbaijan.
During the battle, the OSCE Minsk Group was fashioned, and the events had been delivered to the negotiating desk to resolve the battle. Russia, which has been concerned in resolving the battle, initially sought to carry Russian forces to the area as peacekeepers. However, in December 1994, at a summit of OSCE taking part States in Budapest, Member States determined to carry OSCE peacekeeping forces to the Nagorno-Karabakh area. These forces may very well be composed of the navy forces of impartial states.
In December 1996, on the summit of the OSCE Member States in Lisbon, all Member States, besides Armenia, acknowledged the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan in reference to the Nagorno-Karabakh battle. The signed paperwork concluded that Nagorno-Karabakh battle needed to be resolved throughout the framework of Azerbaijan’s territorial integrity. Also, all proposals by the OSCE Minsk Group to resolve the battle first referred to the UN Security Council’s resolutions, then put ahead their proposals for resolving the battle. On the opposite hand, the OSCE Minsk Group ready three plans to resolve the battle. However, the events didn’t agree with these proposals because of a number of causes. In November 2007, OSCE Minsk Group adopted remaining Madrid Document regarding resolving the battle.
When analyzing the diplomatic processes within the Nagorno-Karabakh battle, it’s evident that Armenia doesn’t acknowledge Nagorno-Karabakh as a separate state or establishment. According to a number of paperwork, the battle has acquired a world character and have to be resolved throughout the framework of worldwide regulation, and the borders of Azerbaijan. Despite all of the accepted and permitted worldwide paperwork, the Armenian management desires Nagorno-Karabakh to be acknowledged as an impartial entity as a result of, on this manner, it is going to be simpler to manage the territory in favor of Armenia. Moreover, the problem that was usually raised on the conferences of the OSCE Minsk Group was associated to the referendum, particularly about self-determination. The deportation of Azerbaijanis residing in Nagorno-Karabakh throughout the Soviet period had a critical influence on the ethnic composition of the inhabitants. Today, the Armenian diplomatic corps calls for the established order, making an allowance for solely the ratio of 1988.However, this contradicts each worldwide regulation and the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and because of this, the appropriate to self-determination can’t be prolonged to the Nagorno-Karabakh area. In addition, in 1996 Armenia didn’t acknowledge worldwide borders of Azerbaijan. It creates a situation for Armenia to begin any battle in anyplace within the borders, as occurred in 2020 July.
Today, not solely the Nagorno-Karabakh area however surrounding territories are also extraordinarily militarized. Clashes within the area are a critical menace to the safety of the peoples who’re residing there intently. Armenians authorities’ non-compliance with worldwide regulation additionally creates circumstances for the proliferation of terrorist teams within the area. The settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh battle underneath worldwide regulation will make sure the safety of the area and the effectiveness of financial and humanitarian help.
Considering the slowdown in peace talks in Nagorno-Karabakh battle, the failure of the OSCE Minsk Group, the unfair remedy of the Western media on Nagorno-Karabakh battle, repeatedly nurturing Azerbaijan’s territorial integrity with an unreasonable perspective by Armenia, makes the area extra unstable and will increase border clashes and as prior to now, the area is not going to result in multi-directional change.